What is a Dys disorder ?

Children with Dys disorders have cognitive disorders that impact their learning. Dys disorders are neurological disorders that manifest themselves in a persistent and lasting manner and have no connection with the level of intelligence of the child, of the adult who are affected. They are hereditary and of genetic origin. The disorders persist in adulthood and it is possible to compensate by adopting strategies.

The entourage can perceive it when the child has learning difficulties or is un at ease with its development. It can also be difficult to spot and relate to the child's particularity.

The different types of Dys disorders :


According to the WHO, "stems from a lasting difficulty in learning to read, in acquiring its automatism in intelligent children who normally attend school ".

It is also a persistent disorder in the acquisition of written language, characterized by great difficulties in the mastery of writing (reading, writing, spelling). According to the WHO, dyslexia also affects between 8 to 10% of children, boys being three times more affected than girls.

How to recognize dyslexia?

An inversion of letters, a difficulty in recognising words in their entirety, a slow reading with many errors, a great fatigue...

It is not useful to rush to the speech therapist if there is a delay in learning to read. Time is also needed because the perceived factors can only be temporary. Dyslexia cannot be diagnosed until the reading becomes fluent.

As dyslexia concerns the acquisition of reading and spelling, there is an impact on general understanding, including instructions, math problems and lessons...

The dyslexic child may have difficulty in completing the required exercises, the questions and answering the questions. It could be perceived as “being a dreamer".


Dyslexic children are also dysorthographic.

Dysorthography is a persistent disorder in the acquisition and mastery of written language which therefore affects spelling.

They have difficulty mastering spelling and its rules and are therefore penalized in terms of their performance at school.


According to the WHO, "it is a specific disorder of motor development, the essential characteristic of which is an alteration in the development of coordination not entirely attributable to intellectual retardation or a specific congenital acquired neurological disorder " . This therefore concerns motor coordination.

Dyspraxia is much less known than Dyslexia and it is detected when the lack of motor coordination affects daily life, learning and academic results. It has a lot of impact on daily life: difficulty in getting dressed, holding cutlery, taking a shower, brushing teeth, tidying up. Children with dyspraxia bump themselves and can often fall. It also has implications for learning (especially in mathematics). Fine motor skills are affected but Dyspraxia can be spotted earlier than dyslexia - in kindergarten.


It corresponds to a disorder in numerical learning. Children with dyscalculia may have difficulty in acquiring knowledge related to numbers, calculations and numerical values ​​(weight and measure). Students may encounter transient difficulties in learning mathematics without exhibiting dyscalculia.

Children with Dyscalculia find it difficult to process numbers, memorize tables, and calculate and understand what a number is, the principles of geometry, and spatial impairment. In everyday life, this can make it difficult for them to understand simple but also complex reasoning.


It is a central disorder linked to the development of oral language and appears from an early age with an absence of language then the appearance of simplified language. It can affect expression, comprehension or both functions at the same time. The dysphasic child has difficulty making himself understood.

Dysphasia can be expressed with incomprehensible sentences and isolated words or received when the right words that are difficult to find. However, children with dysphasia want to interact and are blocked, which leads to altered interactions.

The verbal teaching is not suitable for dysphasic children who need more images to communicate. A Support Teacher can to help them.

The Multidys

It is an association of several Dys disorders and it is different from a general developmental disorder. This can be complicated with appointments to various specialists (speech therapists, psychomotor therapists, orthoptists, etc.).

In conclusion, Dys disorders should be distinguished from a “simple difficulty ". They demand great efforts from the Dys children with greater fatigue because great attention, disturbances in attention, concentration, a gap between oral and written comprehension, slowness in processing information.

The diagnoses allow the implementation of an adequate support plan and the parents are unwavering support to help the Dys children .

To go further,

There are different ways to support people with Dys disorder to make their daily lives more fluid.

Among the solutions that exist, sophrology is one = a global help for better living on a daily basis. It complements the work done with the neuro-pediatrician, psychomotor therapist, speech therapist.

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Emmanuelle Bottreau

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